50 readings in philosophy 4th edition pdf is the logic behind an argument. Logos tries to persuade an audience using logical arguments and supportive evidence. Logos is a persuasive technique often used in writing and rhetoric.
Ancient Greek philosophers used the term in different ways. The rhetor’s success, she argues, will come down to “certain objects of agreementbetween arguer and audience”. Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker’s topic.
Furthermore, logos is credited with appealing to the audience’s sense of logic, with the definition of “logic” being concerned with the thing as it is known. Reformation translators took another approach. Heraclitus seems to use the word with a meaning not significantly different from the way in which it was used in ordinary Greek of his time. I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep.
For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. Aristotle identifies two specific types of persuasion methods: artistic and inartistic. He defines artistic proofs as arguments that the rhetor generates and creates on his own. Examples of these include relationships, testimonies, and conjugates. He defines inartistic proofs as arguments that the rhetor quotes using information from a non-self-generated source.
Examples of these include laws, contracts, and oaths. Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
The Stoics took all activity to imply a Logos, or spiritual principle. Isocrates does not provide a single definition of logos in his work, but Isocratean logos characteristically focuses on speech, reason, and civic discourse. God in the creation of heaven in Psalm 33:6, and in some related contexts. Form, and therefore intermediary beings were necessary to bridge the enormous gap between God and the material world.