Past and current official policy toward Ethiopian traditional medicine is reviewed. To facilitate the objective assessment of official policy, the nature and historical origins of Ethiopian traditional medicine is examined briefly. It is noted that there is being mortal medicine and what matters in the end pdf single system of traditional medicine in Ethiopia, even though themes that are common to the many cultural groups constituting the society have been evolving.
It is also noted that since the 1974 change of government in Ethiopia, official attitude toward the promotion and development of traditional medicine appears to have become more positive, especially, after the adoption of the Primary Health Care strategy in 1978. While this is true as far as official statements are concerned, in actual practice there continues to be considerable uncertainty about the interpretation and implementation of Government policy. It is suggested that misconceptions regarding the nature and role of traditional medicine in Ethiopian society will have to be corrected if appropriate plans and strategies are to be formulated. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. 1991 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Numerous factors affect the care they give and they have significant care needs themselves. The purpose of this survey was to identify key research questions, priorities, and next steps for research on caregivers and palliative care.
A literature search of publications between 2006 and 2011 was conducted, yielding 109 studies that were evaluated on type, quality, topic, and other factors. An interdisciplinary group of healthcare professionals examined results and recommended research priorities. Existing research is primarily descriptive in nature, with few interventions to guide practice. Future research priorities include factors influencing caregivers and roles, information and support needs, caregiver health, end-of-life issues, healthcare disparities, and delivery and costs of care. Conclusions include that expanding the science will contribute to improving caregiver performance and health. This article is about dignity as a matter of philosophy, religion, human rights, law and medicine.
In general, the term has various functions and meanings depending on how the term is used and on the context. In ordinary modern usage, the word denotes “respect” and “status”, and it is often used to suggest that someone is not receiving a proper degree of respect, or even that they are failing to treat themselves with proper self-respect. However, it is rarely defined outright in political, legal, and scientific discussions. Human dignity can be violated in multiple ways. Violations of human dignity in terms of humiliation refer to acts that humiliate or diminish the self-worth of a person or a group. Acts of humiliation are context dependent but we normally have an intuitive understanding where such a violation occurs. This approach is common in judicial decisions where judges refer to violations of human dignity as injuries to people’s self-worth or their self-esteem.
This aspect refers to treating a person as an instrument or as means to achieve some other goal. Violations of human dignity as degradation refer to acts that degrade the value of human beings. These are acts that, even if done by consent, convey a message that diminishes the importance or value of all human beings. They consist of practices that human beings should not be subjected to, regardless of whether subjective humiliation is involved, such as selling oneself to slavery, or when a state authority deliberately puts prisoners in inhuman living conditions. These are acts that strip a person or a group of their human characteristics. It may involve describing or treating them as animals or as a lower type of human beings. This has occurred in genocides such as the Holocaust and in Rwanda where the minority were compared to insects.
Both absolute and relative poverty are violations of human dignity, although they also have other significant dimensions, such as social injustice. Involuntary poverty is unusual among violations of human dignity because it is usually the result of acts of omission rather than acts of commission. Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations as an affront to personal dignity. His comments implied the dignity of philosophers.
Gewirth’s views on human dignity are typically compared and contrasted with Kant’s, for like Kant he theorizes that human dignity arises from agency. But while sharing Kant’s view that rights arise from dignity, Gewirth focused far more than Kant on the positive obligations that dignity imposed on humans, the moral requirement not only to avoid harming but to actively assist one another in achieving and maintaining a state of “well being”. Adler extensively explored the question of human equality and equal right to dignity. According to Adler, the question of whether humans have equal right to dignity is intrinsically bound in the question of whether human beings are truly equal, which itself is bound in the question of whether human beings are a distinct class from all things, including animals, or vary from other things only by degree.