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Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing—defined here as the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds—can now significantly influence a firm’s ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Nonetheless, many managers are hesitant to consider crowdsourcing because they do not understand how its various types can add value to the firm. In response, we explain what crowdsourcing is, the advantages it offers, and how firms can pursue crowdsourcing. We then present a three-step process model for generating crowd capital. Step one includes important considerations that shape how a crowd is to be constructed. Step three outlines key decision areas that executives need to address to effectively engage crowds.

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc. In past decades, high employee turnover has been an important issue for many hoteliers and a focus of academic interest. Although hoteliers often use retention techniques to retain capable employees, the turnover rate remains high. The purpose of this study was to explore determinants of management-level employee turnover and to identify existing practices in human resource retention strategies. Another factor of turnover may be that relating to differences between expectations and reality.

This study indicates that managers need to understand more fully the needs of subordinates when providing career advice, and relevant training programs should be introduced to enhance career opportunities. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other. He is also remembered for devising the campaign that destroyed the armies of Hungary and Poland within two days of each other, by forces over five hundred kilometers apart. By any metric, he is one of the most successful commanders in history. Siberian forest-dwellers who did not live like the plains Mongols to their south.

As a result of his upbringing, Subutai lacked the natural horsemanship training from birth that all Mongols possessed, making him an outsider among them. Subutai’s great-great grandfather, Nerbi, was supposedly an ally of the Mongol Khan Tumbina Sechen. Mongol army and was a close companion of Temujin. Encountering robbers, he was seized.