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Crusades” is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call. 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church.
The enthusiastic response to Urban’s preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain. The two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were six major Crusades and numerous less significant ones.
After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291 there were no more Crusades but the gains were longer lasting in Northern and Western Europe. Catholic control in the late 12th-century. 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold widely varying opinions of the Crusaders. Croisade” appeared in English c. 1575, and continued to be the leading form until c. Although the term “Crusade” has been adopted by historians to describe the Christian holy wars from 1095, the range of events to which it has been applied is so great that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence, particularly regarding the early Crusades.
The term “Crusade” may differ in usage depending on the author. Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, justification, or geographic location. Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of the faith. First Crusade and perhaps the People’s Crusade. 16th century, the words “Muslim” and “Islam” were rarely used by Europeans.