There have been several schools in the history of chess opening philidor defense pdf chess. This was the first book to discuss the strategy of chess in the whole in detail. Philidor’s writings were widely praised and misunderstood for 90 years.
His ideas were taken up by the English school in the 1840s. In this style, there was no quick attack on the opposing king. Attacks came only after strategic advantages were obtained. Pieces were developed behind pawns to support their advance. After Staunton practically retired in 1853, these ideas were neglected. Steinitz, who had engaged in the mid-century Romantic style of play in his youth, began to change his focus to building a strong pawn structure and seeing small advantages to capitalize on rather than sweeping assaults against the enemy king.
Positional play was not a new idea and there are many examples of such games from the Romantic era, however it did not become popular or widely accepted until Steinitz won the 1873 Vienna Tournament with his ideas of defense-based chess. He is considered the first true chess world champion, and remained so for 21 years despite not playing actively for almost 15 of them. In addition, he became the first chess master to make a living exclusively from professional chess, while most players up to this time played the game merely as a hobby or way to earn extra money while having other professions as their main occupation. Steinitz’s ideas were controversial and widely criticized–some older players such as Adolf Anderssen never fully accepted them.