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The funding environment and Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s were also factors that lead some physicists to prefer the name “condensed matter physics”, which emphasized the commonality of scientific problems encountered by physicists working on solids, liquids, plasmas, and other complex matter, over “solid state physics”, which was often associated with the industrial applications of metals and semiconductors. References to “condensed” state can be traced to earlier sources. The kinetic theory of liquids must accordingly be developed as a generalization and extension of the kinetic theory of solid bodies. As a matter of fact, it would be more correct to unify them under the title of ‘condensed bodies'”. Dalton claimed, but had inner structure. The phenomenon completely surprised the best theoretical physicists of the time, and it remained unexplained for several decades. 1922, said regarding contemporary theories of superconductivity that “with our far-reaching ignorance of the quantum mechanics of composite systems we are very far from being able to compose a theory out of these vague ideas”.

Magnetism as a property of matter has been known in China since 4000 BC. A magnet levitating over a superconducting material. The Sommerfeld model and spin models for ferromagnetism illustrated the successful application of quantum mechanics to condensed matter problems in the 1930s. The effect was observed to be independent of parameters such as system size and impurities. The study of topological properties of the fractional Hall effect remains an active field of research.