Smocking crewel book 1 pdf download the collar of a sixteenth-century garment. Other major embroidery styles are purely decorative and represented status symbols. Smocking was used most extensively in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Smocking requires lightweight fabric with a stable weave that gathers well.
Any type of fabric can be smocked if it is supple enough to be gathered. Fabric can be gathered into pleats in a variety of ways. Early smocking, or gauging, was done by hand. Some embroiderers also made their own guides using cardboard and an embroidery marking pencil. By 1880, iron-on transfer dots were available and advertised in magazines such as Weldon’s. The iron on transfers places evenly spaced dots onto the wrong side of the fabric, which were then pleated using a regular running stitch.