This paper discusses current trends of quality assurance procedures and practices in Ethiopian higher education. Public HEIs did not implement recommendations forwarded in audit reports, ethiopian policy on quality of higher education pdf no follow-up action was taken by the quality assurance agency.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Dr. Increased participation in higher education comes with increased challenges for Ethiopian society. Inequality is still a problem in Ethiopia, but the public university system is at least beginning to address this. The country can learn lessons from the positive successes of some higher education programmes.

Understanding the societal changes due to the feminisation of higher education can help the country to move forward on its development trajectory. Ethiopia, while one of the world’s poorest countries, has one of the world’s fastest developing economies. In the last two decades the government has imparted on a public university development programme which has seen 29 new universities built all over the country. This rapid development is often criticised for sacrificing quality for quantity, but has had a notable success in bringing many more Ethiopian women into higher education. The traditional patriarchal nature of Ethiopian society has sometimes struggled to cope with the changes and challenges that are being brought about by an increasingly educated female population.

Through key informant analysis of the opinions of 14 experts on Ethiopian development and education this article looks at some of the major changes and challenges that universities are bringing about for female Ethiopians and asks what are the emerging consequences of increased university participation for the lives of Ethiopian women. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Reading and writing” redirects here. World illiteracy halved between 1970 and 2015 . A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate.

The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society”. During this era, literacy was “a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production”. Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production. 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE.

Moreover, he asserts, “These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts”. The consonantal system of the Canaanite script inspired alphabetical developments in subsequent systems. According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. Canaanite that was used c. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated c.

Greeks may have adopted the consonantal alphabet as early as 1100 BCE, and later “added in five characters to represent vowels”. Some archeologists believe that Phoenician scripture had some influence on the developments of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets based on the fact that these languages evolved during the same time period, share similar features, and are commonly categorized into the same language group. When the Israelites migrated to Canaan between 1200 and 1001 BCE, they also adopted a variation of the Canaanite alphabet. Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts. Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as early as the seventh century BCE. Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers would come to adopt it as a “diplomatic language”. Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in ancient times.