They also tend to live in adverse neighborhood social and physical environments. We examined the impact of these neighborhood features on T2DM in African Americans. Higher neighborhood social ged social studies study guide pdf was associated with lower incidence of T2DM. Higher density of unfavorable food stores was associated with higher incidence of T2DM.

Improving community ties or attracting healthy food stores may reduce T2DM. T2DM during a median follow-up of 7. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Our findings suggest that efforts to strengthen community ties or to attract healthy food retail outlets might be important strategies to consider for prevention of T2DM in AA.

Older adults living in high-poverty urban neighborhoods are at greater risk for depression. Older adults who lived in neighborhoods with a higher homicide rate experienced greater depressive symptom severity. Neighborhood exposure to violence may be a key path through which neighborhood poverty impacts depression among older adults. The pathways through which neighborhood poverty can affect resident depression are still unknown.

We investigated mechanisms through which neighborhood poverty may influence depression among older adults. Neighborhood exposure to violence may be a key mechanism through which neighborhood poverty influences depression among older adults. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. It substantially affects a person’s life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person’s lifetime.

Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings for different communities. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.

It gauges one’s ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Enlightenment, physical differences were viewed through a different lens. Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of “monsters”, “prodigies”, and “the maimed”. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments.

Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated, studied, and transformed. These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, and normalcy came from this. With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person’s biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such “deviations” out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person’s genetic fitness, which were then used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. In the early 1970s, disability activists began to challenge how society treated disabled people and the medical approach to disability.