The goodstein states of matter pdf download fundamental states of matter. Some other states are believed to be possible but remain theoretical for now.

Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are still close together but move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape, but as well as neutral atoms, it contains a significant number of ions and electrons, both of which can move around freely. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume.

Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut. Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting, and liquids can be transformed into solids by freezing. Structure of a classical monatomic liquid. Atoms have many nearest neighbors in contact, yet no long-range order is present. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container.

The spaces between gas molecules are very big. Gas molecules have very weak or no bonds at all. The molecules in “gas” can move freely and fast. A gas is a compressible fluid.

Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will also expand to fill the container. A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications. In a plasma, electrons are ripped away from their nuclei, forming an electron “sea”. This gives it the ability to conduct electricity.

Like a gas, plasma does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a “sea” of freely-moving disassociated electrons, similar to the way such charges exist in conductive metal, where this electron “sea” allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity. A gas is usually converted to a plasma in one of two ways. Either from a huge voltage difference between two points, or by exposing it to extremely high temperatures. Heating matter to high temperatures causes electrons to leave the atoms, resulting in the presence of free electrons.

This creates a so-called partially ionised plasma. At very high temperatures, such as those present in stars, it is assumed that essentially all electrons are “free”, and that a very high-energy plasma is essentially bare nuclei swimming in a sea of electrons. This forms the so-called fully ionised plasma. This diagram illustrates transitions between the four fundamental states of matter. File:Physics matter state transition 1 en. A phase transition indicates a change in structure and can be recognized by an abrupt change in properties. Water can be said to have several distinct solid states.

Forms of matter that are not composed of molecules and are organized by different forces can also be considered different states of matter. Regular hexagonal pattern of Si and O atoms, with a Si atom at each corner and the O atoms at the centre of each side. The conversion rate, however, is practically zero. Liquid crystal states have properties intermediate between mobile liquids and ordered solids. Generally, they are able to flow like a liquid, but exhibiting long-range order.

Like a crystalline solid, but unlike a liquid, liquid crystals react to polarized light. Other types of liquid crystals are described in the main article on these states. In some solids the magnetic moments on different atoms are ordered and can form a ferromagnet, an antiferromagnet or a ferrimagnet. It is not a liquid in physical sense, but a solid whose magnetic order is inherently disordered. The name “liquid” is due to an analogy with the molecular disorder in a conventional liquid.