This paper reviews the literature on the group involvement in bullying, thus providing insight into the individuals’ motives for participation group bullying exclusion and ganging up pdf bullying, the persistence of bullying, and the adjustment of victims across different peer contexts. Interventions targeting the peer group are briefly discussed and future directions for research on peer processes in bullying are suggested.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This article is about mobbing in relation to human bullying behaviour. In his view, humans are subject to similar innate impulses but capable of bringing them under rational control. Lorenz’s conceptualization to the collective aggression of children against a targeted child. After making this discovery he successfully treated thousands of victims at his clinic in Sweden. For that reason, she indicated that anyone can and will engage in mobbing, and that once mobbing gets underway, just as in the animal kingdom it will almost always continue and intensify as long as the target remains with the group. Leymann called “mobbing” in a workplace context.
They identify mobbing as a particular type of bullying that is not as apparent as most, defining it as “an emotional assault. It begins when an individual becomes the target of disrespectful and harmful behavior. Adams and Field believe that mobbing is typically found in work environments that have poorly organised production or working methods and incapable or inattentive management and that mobbing victims are usually “exceptional individuals who demonstrated intelligence, competence, creativity, integrity, accomplishment and dedication”. In these employments, efforts to eliminate the worker will intensify to push the worker out against his or her will through shunning, sabotage, false accusations and a series of investigations and poor reviews. Finally, she suggests that organizations where there are limited opportunities for advancement can be prone to mobbing because those who do advance are more likely to view challenges to their leadership as threats to their precarious positions. Harper further challenges the idea that workers are targeted for their exceptional competence. In some cases, she suggests, exceptional workers are mobbed because they are viewed as threatening to someone, but some workers who are mobbed are not necessarily good workers.
Rather, Harper contends, some mobbing targets are outcasts or unproductive workers who cannot easily be terminated, and are thus treated inhumanely to push them out. While Harper emphasizes the cruelty and damaging consequences of mobbing, her organizational analysis focuses on the structural, rather than moral, nature of the organization. Moreover, she views the behavior itself, which she terms workplace aggression, as grounded in group psychology, rather than individual psychosis—even when the mobbing is initiated due to a leader’s personal psychosis, the dynamics of group aggression will transform the leader’s bullying into group mobbing—two vastly distinct psychological and social phenomena. Shallcross, Ramsay and Barker consider workplace “mobbing” to be a generally unfamiliar term in some English speaking countries. Some researchers claim that mobbing is simply another name for bullying. Mobbing can be described as being “ganged up on. The leader then rallies others into a systematic and frequent “mob-like” behaviour toward the victim.
Mobbing as “downward bullying” by superiors is also known as “bossing”, and “upward bullying” by colleagues as “staffing”, in some European countries, for instance, in German-speaking regions. In mobbing targets with PTSD, Leymann notes that the “mental effects were fully comparable with PTSD from war or prison camp experiences. Some patients may develop alcoholism or other substance abuse disorders. Sweden could be directly attributed to workplace mobbing. Following on from the work of Heinemann, Elliot identifies mobbing as a common phenomenon in the form of group bullying at school. Sociologists and authors have created checklists and other tools to identify mobbing behaviour.
Schwartz and Gail Pursell Elliott. 3rd Edition 2005, Civil Society Publishing. Workplace mobbing: Are they really out to get your patient? Workplace Bullying in the Academic World? Workplace Mobbing: a Discussion for Librarians. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. 2005 “Mobbing at Work: Escalated Conflicts in Organizations.