Why guide to network defense and countermeasures pdf I have to complete a CAPTCHA? Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. What can I do to prevent this in the future? If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.

If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Cognitive radio is a promising technology proposed to solve the scarcity of the radio spectrum by opportunistically allocating the idle channels of the licensed users to unlicensed ones. The effectiveness of the cognitive radio is highly dependent on fair and efficient management of the access to the unused portion of the frequency channels, which is performed by the media access control layer.

Therefore, any malicious activities disrupting operation of this layer result in significant performance degradation of the cognitive radio networks. As a result, it is necessary to understand functions of the media access control layer of the cognitive radio and analyze the impacts of possible attacks these functions might encounter. This paper provides an overview of different attacks that target the media access control layer of cognitive radio and analyzes them based on this layer’s functions. In addition, the paper describes and compares recent defense strategies related to each attack. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Bachelors of Engineering in Electronics from Azad University, Iran and his Master of Engineering in Telecommunications from Multimedia University, Malaysia in 2007 and 2012, respectively.

He is currently pursuing his Ph. Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of North Dakota. His research interests include cybersecurity, wireless communications, cognitive radio networks, Bayesian reasoning and optimization algorithms. Electrical Engineering Department at the University of North Dakota, USA.

Electrical Engineering from the University of Paris 11 and the University of Paris 6, France, respectively. M1 is well armed and heavily armored. The M1 Abrams entered U. Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, incorporating improved armament, protection, and electronics.

These improvements and other upgrades to in-service tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service. In addition, development of the improved M1A3 version was first publicly disclosed in 2009. Extensive improvements have been implemeted to the latest M1A2 SEPv3 version. Being vastly superior to Iraqi tanks, very few M1 tanks were hit by enemy fire. Upgrades after the war improved the tank’s weapons sights and fire control unit. The Marine Corps sent a company of M1A1 Abrams tanks to Afghanistan in 2010. The MBT-70 ultimately proved to be too heavy, complex, and expensive.

As a result of the imminent failure of this project, the U. Army introduced the XM803, using some technologies from the MBT-70 but removing some of the more troublesome features. This succeeded only in producing an expensive system with capabilities similar to the M60. Chrysler had significant experience designing turbine-powered land vehicles going back to the 1950s. Chrysler Defense, after Chrysler built over 1,000 M1s. 85 and first entered U. The M1 was armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun.