Two major war memorials commemorating the dead soldiers in. During this period, the war escalated from an insurgency in South Vietnam assisted by the North Vietnamese government to direct military intervention in the south by North Hanoi’s road to the vietnam war pdf to assist the insurgents and the intervention of military forces of the United States and other countries to assist South Vietnam. The war also spilled over into the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos.

An exhaustive reckoning of the total casualties must include statistical information available for each theater of the war. Civilian deaths caused by both sides amounted to a significant percentage of total deaths, perhaps from 30 to nearly 50 percent. The nature of the war often made it difficult to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants. A number of incidents occurred during the war in which civilians were deliberately targeted or killed. Estimates of the total number of deaths in the Vietnam War vary widely.

The wide disparity among the estimates cited below is partially explained by the different time periods of the Vietnam War covered by the studies and whether or not casualties in Cambodia and Laos were included in the estimates. 1974 in which the U. Lewy reduced the number of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese battle deaths claimed by the U. His estimate of total deaths is reflected in the table. 143,000 adult females, and 84,000 children. Those totals include only Vietnamese deaths, and do not include American and other allied military deaths which amounted to about 64,000. The study has been criticized for its small sample size, the imbalance in the sample between rural and urban areas, and the possible overlooking of clusters of high mortality rates.

According to the Vietnamese, Communist battle deaths totaled 1. 1 million and civilian deaths of Vietnamese totaled 2. These estimates probably include battle deaths of Vietnamese soldiers in Laos and Cambodia, but do not include deaths of South Vietnamese and allied soldiers which would add nearly 300,000 for a grand total of 3. 4 million military and civilian dead.

74 and 810,000 between 1975 and 1984. Sweden maintains the Armed Conflict Database. 75 for a total of 1,622,973. Data for deaths in Laos is incomplete.

Rummel calculated communist war deaths at 1,062,000 and South Vietnamese and allied war deaths of 741,000, both totals including civilians inadvertently killed. 214,000 by the communists and 98,000 by South Vietnam and its allies. Deaths in Cambodia and Laos were estimated at 273,000 and 62,000 respectively. 70,000 civilians killed by U.

Democide is the murder of persons by or at the behest of governments. Rummel does not give a medium or high estimate. The attack was broken up mainly by US air power. 250,000 were killed as a result of combat in South Vietnam, and 65,000 were killed in North Vietnam. He suggests that another 222,000 civilians were counted as military deaths by the U. His estimated total of civilian deaths is 587,000. It was difficult to distinguish between civilians and military personnel on the Viet Cong side as many persons were part-time guerrillas or impressed laborers who did not wear uniforms.