This article is about language translation. Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of “imitation”, i. how to translate pdf from german to english-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. If translation be an art, it is no easy one.

European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. 18th century, “it has been axiomatic” that one translates only toward his own language. Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations. Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments. Also, though heavily influenced by Western traditions and practiced by translators taught in Western-style educational systems, Chinese and related translation traditions retain some theories and philosophies unique to the Chinese tradition. Chinese texts for Japanese speakers.

Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government. Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like , another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle. Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness. Chinese poems normally are read. Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting.