Further documentation is available here. The Short- and Long-Term Impact of Infrastructure Investments on Employment impact of transport infrastructure on firm formation pdf free Economic Activity in the U.

The Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Infrastructure Investments on U. This is hardly a surprise, as increased infrastructure investments could go a long way to solving several pressing challenges that the American economy faces. In the near term, the most pressing economic challenge for the U. 5 percentage points higher than it was at the official end of the Great Recession in June 2009.

And it is more than 3. 9 percentage points lower than during the labor market peak of the mid-2000s, and 5. 4 percentage points lower than its 1999 peak. In the longer term, the most pressing economic challenges for the U. Great Recession, a rise in inequality that kept overall productivity growth from translating into living standards growth for most Americans.

This report examines the short- and long-term economic and employment impacts of infrastructure investment. It examines three possible scenarios for infrastructure investment and estimates their likely impact on overall economic activity, productivity, and the number and types of jobs, depending on how the investments are financed. The data show that by far the biggest near-term boost to gross domestic product and jobs comes from financing the new investment through new federal government debt rather than a progressive increase in taxation, a regressive increase in taxation, or cuts to government transfer programs. Our research also shows that this debt-financed impact is greater than that deriving from increases in infrastructure investment that are driven not by direct public investments but through other actions, such as regulatory mandates. 250 billion annually for infrastructure investment. 30 billion annually over the next decade for infrastructure investments.

As of January 2014, a third of the scheduled sequester cuts were cancelled for the next two years only. 92 billion annually in infrastructure investments over the next decade. 250 billion annually in infrastructure investment between now and 2020. In the near term, increases in infrastructure spending would significantly boost economic activity and employment. 29 billion increase in GDP and 216,000 net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the next decade.

147 billion and generates 1. 1 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the next decade. 400 billion and overall employment by 3 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the seven-year life of the investment. Any method of making these infrastructure investments deficit-neutral reduces their impact on near-term activity and employment, but every method except cuts to government transfers still leaves a net positive impact. Over the long term, we can reliably predict only the impact of infrastructure investments on the composition, not the overall level, of labor demand. Under all scenarios, jobs created are disproportionately male, Latino, and skewed away from younger workers.

Under scenario one, male employment accounts for 77 percent of all jobs created, while under scenario two it accounts for 80. 4 percent of all jobs created, and under scenario three it accounts for 74. 1 percent, compared with an economy-wide average of 50. 2 percent of all jobs being held by men. Under scenario one Latino employment accounts for 15.