Census statistics for metropolitan areas are reported according to the following definitions. 10,000 in population, or where a population of 5,000 are located in an largest metropolitan areas us pdf of at least 10,000 in population. CBSA if these counties have strong social and economic ties to the central counties as measured by commuting and employment.

Some areas within these outlying counties may be rural in nature. All counties in a CBSA must be contiguous, and a county can only be included within one CBSA. Adjacent CBSAs are merged into a single CBSA when the central county or counties of one CBSA qualify as an outlying county or counties to the other CBSAs. 10,000 in population but less than 50,000 in population. Office of Management and Budget. This page was last edited on 27 January 2018, at 00:40. As the world moves towards a carbon-free future, cities have been identified as key hubs for change.

They have the greatest ability to quickly develop more efficient systems and implement climate change mitigation policies. Moreover, cities will become the destination of a population migration as humanity grows globally to a population of 11 billion. In this case study, we show that the applicability of the Ecological Footprint, an overarching outcome measure of resource consumption, for targeting climate change mitigation in cities. Canada, by scaling results according to the annual national survey of household spending from 2010 to 2015. The expenditure in electricity was also scaled with the carbon intensity factor. Our findings indicate that the carbon Footprint remains the largest contributor of the Ecological Footprint of CMAs. The carbon Footprint associated with housing varied significantly with the source of electricity production.

CMAs relying on renewable energy sources have a substantially lower carbon Footprint than those relying on fossil fuel energy. The carbon Footprint associated with the operation of personal transportation was the second largest among all consumption categories. Financial services is the largest share of the carbon Footprint from service consumption. Clothing consumption caused most of the goods’ carbon Footprint. A better understanding of urban planning of Canadian CMAs and promoting local consumption will improve carbon mitigation and long-term sustainability. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution.

Focusing upon processes rather than attributes, this paper identifies two place-based processes that both promote and constrain the emergence and development of AFNs. Urbanization and rural restructuring are critical to the development of AFNs. The interactions of urbanization and rural restructuring produce AFNs that are differentiated and marked by uneven development that does not necessarily support all farmers participating in the network. This indicates both the fragility and the dynamism inherent in AFNs that are tied to metropolitan development and change. Evidence for these claims comes from an in-depth, qualitative case study reliant upon participant observation, in-depth interviews and draws from a statewide farmer survey and a regional consumer survey in Washington State. Census statistics for metropolitan areas are reported according to the following definitions.