Provides examples of structural health scholarship and structural interventions. Ultimately argues for medical models of structural change. This paper describes a shift in medical education away from pedagogic approaches to stigma and inequalities that emphasize cross-cultural understandings of individual patients, toward attention to forces that influence health outcomes at levels above individual interactions. It reviews existing structural approaches to stigma and health inequalities developed pdf for stigma social inequality of medicine, and proposes changes to U.

Examples are provided of structural health scholarship that should be adopted into medical didactic curricula, and of structural interventions that can provide participant-observation opportunities for clinical trainees. The paper ultimately argues that increasing recognition of the ways in which social and economic forces produce symptoms or methylate genes then needs to be better coupled with medical models for structural change. Perceived stigma in substance abuse was linked to poorer mental health. Perceived social support was linked to greater mental health.