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Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content. A wide variety of methods of geophysical investigation are available. These methods measure the variations in selected physical properties of the ground such as wave velocity, resistivity, density, and magnetic susceptibility. These parameters are generally related to geotechnical or geological characteristics of the ground. The methods work best if there are strong contrasts in the measured parameters either with depth or laterally across the site. If ground conditions are suitable, the use of an appropriate geophysical method can prove very economical in establishing some of the more important features of ground conditions on a large site, such as the depth to rock. This enables the minimum number of expensive boreholes to be employed later.
Alternatively, anomalies revealed by geophysical investigations can be used to select the optimum locations for the more expensive subsurface investigation techniques. Trial excavations and boreholes are traditional methods of direct subsurface exploration. 1991 British Electricity International Ltd. This article has not been cited. This chapter discusses the concept of soil dielectrics, available techniques for the determination of soil dielectric permittivity and soil moisture content, and the associated theoretical background for a better understanding of the measured soil dielectric property and the moisture content.
Important probe design factors, such as probe length, rod diameter, spacing between the rods, sampling volume, connector type, connector correction, and probe robustness, that influence the reflected signals are evaluated. Laboratory measurement techniques for dielectric permittivity and bulk electrical conductivity are also deliberated. These two properties are often obtained by direct analysis of the TDR waveforms in the time domain. However, since much more information is contained in TDR waveforms, using the extended Debye model, the inverse modeling of TDR waveform to extract information about the frequency dependence of the soil dielectric permittivity, is explained. To represent the macroscopic dielectric property of a soil by its individual components, the widely used mixing models that relate dielectric constant and soil moisture content, are assessed. The influences of physicochemical properties, such as bound water content, capillary and free water, saline water solution, mineralogy, bentonite content, clay content, soil texture, moisture content, soil density, volcanic soils, and nonaqueous phase liquid solutions, on dielectric permittivity of soils are analyzed.