A project may also be a set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed project management plan sample pdf and within certain cost and other limitations. The word “project” thus originally meant “before an action”. Every project has certain phases of development.

It seeks the realization of a unique and innovative deliverable, such as a product, a service, a process, or in some cases, a scientific research. Each project has a beginning and an end, and as such is considered a closed dynamic system. It is bound by the triple constraints that are calendar, costs and norms of quality, each of which can be determined and measured objectively along the project lifecycle. A project is an individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned and researched about by students. Projects can also be seen as temporary organization. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating. Note that SMART is best applied for incremental-type innovation projects.

For radical-type projects it does not apply so well. As these activities are temporary endeavors with clear start and end dates, the term “project” is applied. Because the results of these activities are typically long-standing infrastructure, with a life measured in years or decades, these projects are typically accounted for in financial accounting as capital expenditures, and thus they are termed “capital projects”. Therefore, these kinds of projects involve constant change and dynamisim due to the social constructions evolve among time. State projects have to adapt to the current moment. They are mostly community services based. Two theoretical propositions have been made: First, projects as temporary systems are characterized by certain structural properties, in particular task specifications, time constraints and team relations, that guide project activities.

Tools for uncovering points of vulnerability. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. A Management Framework: For Project, Program and Portfolio Integration. On the nature of the project as a temporary organization.