Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child aside from the biological relationship. Winnicott wrote, “The good-enough motherstarts off with an almost complete adaptation raising an emotionally intelligent child the heart of parenting pdf her infant’s needs, and as time proceeds she adapts less and less completely, gradually, according to the infant’s growing ability to deal with her failure. Views on the characteristics that make one a good or “good-enough” parent vary from culture to culture.
Cultural values play a major role in how a parent raises their child. A family’s social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be made available to a child. Also, lower working-class families do not get the kind of networking that the middle and upper classes do through helpful family members, friends, and community individuals and groups as well as various professionals or experts. A parenting style is the overall emotional climate in the home. These parenting styles were later expanded to four, including an uninvolved style. On the one hand, these four styles of parenting involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness, and on the other hand, involve demand and control.
In particular, authoritative parenting is positively related to mental health and satisfaction with life, and authoritarian parenting is negatively related to these variables. Described by Baumrind as the “just right” style, in combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents. Authoritative parents rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. Parents are more aware of a child’s feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child’s autonomy within reasonable limits. There is a give-and-take atmosphere involved in parent-child communication and both control and support are balanced.
An example of authoritative parenting would be the parents talking to their child about their emotions. Authoritarian parents are very rigid and strict. They place high demands on the child, but are not responsive to the child. Parents who practice authoritarian style parenting have a rigid set of rules and expectations that are strictly enforced and require rigid obedience. When the rules are not followed, punishment is most often used to promote future obedience. There is usually no explanation of punishment except that the child is in trouble for breaking a rule. Because I said so” is a typical response to a child’s question of authority.
This type of authority is used more often in working-class families than the middle class. In 1983 Diana Baumrind found that children raised in an authoritarian-style home were less cheerful, more moody and more vulnerable to stress. In many cases these children also demonstrated passive hostility. An example of authoritarian parenting would be the parents harshly punishing their children and disregarding their children’s feelings and emotions.
Permissive or indulgent parenting is more popular in middle-class families than in working-class families. In these family settings, a child’s freedom and autonomy are highly valued, and parents tend to rely mostly on reasoning and explanation. Parents are undemanding, so there tends to be little, if any punishment or explicit rules in this style of parenting. These parents say that their children are free from external constraints and tend to be highly responsive to whatever the child wants at the moment. Children of permissive parents are generally happy but sometimes show low levels of self-control and self-reliance because they lack structure at home. An example of permissive parenting would be the parents not disciplining their children. An uninvolved or neglectful parenting style is when parents are often emotionally absent and sometimes even physically absent.
They have little or no expectation of the child and regularly have no communication. They are not responsive to a child’s needs and do not demand anything of them in their behavioral expectations. If present, they may provide what the child needs for survival with little to no engagement. There is often a large gap between parents and children with this parenting style. Children with little or no communication with their own parents tended to be the victims of another child’s deviant behavior and may be involved in some deviance themselves. There is no single or definitive model of parenting. A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child.
For example, a common parent practice intended to promote academic success is reading books to the child. Parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in more communal cultures, such as West African cultures, spend more time talking to the baby about other people, and more time with the baby facing outwards, so that the baby sees what the mother sees. Children develop skills at different rates as a result of differences in these culturally driven parenting practices. In practice, this means that a child in an independent culture will happily play by herself, but a child in a communal culture is more likely to follow his mother’s instruction to pick up his toys. Children that grow up in communities with a collaborative orientation to social interaction, such as some Indigenous American communities, are also able to self-regulate and become very self-confident, while remaining involved in the community. In Kenya, Africa, many male parents are not encouraged to be involved in their children’s lives till they are about 12 years old.
Parenting skills are the guiding forces of a “good parent” to lead a child into a healthy adult, they influence on development, maintenance, and cessation of children’s negative and positive behaviors. Parenting takes a lot of skill and patience and is constant work and growth. The cognitive potential, social skills, and behavioral functioning a child acquires during the early years are fundamentally dependent on the quality of their interactions with their parents. Keep open communication and stay educated on what their child is seeing, learning and doing and how it is affecting them. Parenting skills are often assumed to be self-evident or naturally present in parents. Every kid needs one adult who is crazy about . Parentingthe most complicated job in the world.