We used remote sensing and surveys to assess resettlement and villagization a country study ethiopia.pdf in southwest Ethiopia. Geospatial analysis and local perceptions corroborate rapid deforestation. Deforestation rates varied in space and time. Temporal variations overlapped with land-tenure and agricultural development policies.
Regional variations correlated with demographic factors and livelihood practices. Land-use change, a major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem service degradation, is caused by intertwined local and regional forces that shape human-environment interactions. In order to understand the interacting effects of local processes and national policies on landscape changes, we studied two districts of contrasting demographic and land-management histories in southwest Ethiopia. Yeki that correlated with demographic pressure from resettlement and agricultural expansion, and lower rates in Decha associated with lower population pressure and in response to forest conservation practices and higher non-timber forest benefits to local communities. The interactions in agricultural policy, land-tenure, demographic dynamics, and conservation policies with forest stability or decline suggested by this study shows the importance of carefully considering the undesirable effects of resettlement and agricultural development policies and the need to support community forest conservation that also benefits local people. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution.
Other areas of Ethiopia experienced famine for similar reasons, resulting in tens of thousands of additional deaths. However, Human Rights Watch has alleged that widespread drought occurred only some months after the famine was under way. 85 famine, two decades of wars of national liberation and other anti-government conflict had raged throughout Ethiopia and Eritrea. The most prominent feature of the fighting was the use of indiscriminate violence against civilians by the Ethiopian army and air force.
Despite attempts to suppress news of this famine, leaked reports contributed to the undermining of the government’s legitimacy and served as a rallying point for dissidents, who complained that the wealthy classes and the Ethiopian government had ignored both the famine and the people who had died. The RRC initially enjoyed more independence from the Derg than any other ministry, largely due to its close ties to foreign donors and the quality of some its senior staff. As a result, insurgencies began to spread into the country’s administrative regions. By late 1976 insurgencies existed in all of the country’s fourteen administrative regions. The very low fixed price of grain served as a disincentive to production, and some peasants had to buy grain on the open market in order to meet their AMC quota. Citizens in Wollo, which continued to be stricken with drought, were required to provide a “famine relief tax” to the AMC until 1984. The Derg also imposed a system of travel permits to restrict peasants from engaging in non-agricultural activities, such as petty trading and migrant labor, a major form of income supplementation.
However, the collapse of the system of State Farms, a large employer of seasonal laborers, resulted in an estimated 500,000 farmers in northern Ethiopia losing a component of their income. 20,000 and 30,000 to 4,942 in the decade after the revolution. The nature of the RRC changed as the government became increasingly authoritarian. Immediately after its creation, its experienced core of technocrats produced highly regarded analyses of Ethiopian famine and ably carried out famine relief efforts. However, by the 1980s, the Derg had compromised its mission. It also encouraged international agencies to set up relief programs in regions with surplus grain production, which allowed the AMC to collect the excess food.