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Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content. Biomedical sensors are the main building blocks of diagnostic medical instrumentation found in many physician offices, clinical laboratories, and hospitals. They are routinely used in clinical medicine and biological research to perform continuous invasive and non-invasive monitoring of a wide range of critical physiological variables. Increasing pressures to lower health care costs, optimize efficiency, and provide better care in less expensive settings without compromising patient care are shaping the future of biomedical sensors and bioinstrumentation. As part of this ongoing trend, clinical testing is rapidly being transformed by the introduction of new tests that will revolutionize the way physicians will diagnose and treat diseases in the future. Among these changes, patient self-testing, point of care, and physician office screening are the two most rapidly expanding areas. This chapter reviews some of the most commonly used biomedical measurements using electrical, physical, and optical sensors.
Sensor classifications, sensor specifications, biopotential measurements, physical sensors, blood gases sensors, bioanalytical sensors, optical sensors. List the major types of organic compounds and other elements found in cells. Explain how the plasma membrane maintains the volume and internal concentrations of a cell. Calculate the internal osmolarity and ionic concentrations of a model cell at equilibrium. List and describe the functions of the major organelles found within mammalian cells. Describe the similarities, differences, and purposes of replication, transcription, and translation. List and describe the major components and functions of five organ systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, and muscular.
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