The cutter may also be held at an angle relative to the axis of the tool. Milling covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty working principle of cnc machine pdf milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes for machining custom parts to precise tolerances. CNC capability, coolant systems, and enclosures.

The milling process removes material by performing many separate, small cuts. In this case the blades of the cutter can be seen as scooping out material from the work piece. Peripheral milling is well suited to the cutting of deep slots, threads, and gear teeth. Many different types of cutting tools are used in the milling process. Milling cutters may also have extended cutting surfaces on their sides to allow for peripheral milling. Tools optimized for face milling tend to have only small cutters at their end corners. Thin film coatings may be applied to decrease friction or further increase hardness.

As material passes through the cutting area of a milling machine, the blades of the cutter take swarfs of material at regular intervals. The distance between ridges and the height of the ridges depend on the feed rate, number of cutting surfaces, the cutter diameter. Trochoidal marks, characteristic of face milling. The face milling process can in principle produce very flat surfaces. Revolution marks can have significant roughness depending on factors such as flatness of the cutter’s end face and the degree of perpendicularity between the cutter’s rotation axis and feed direction.